7/19/95 Tobacco News

TOBACCO NEWS JULY 19, 1995



HEALTH

Nicotine & SIDS

Durham, NC. July 12, 1995. A tobacco industry-funded study has found the first laboratory evidence of nicotine's effects on fetal biology, concluding that nicotine may be a significant factor in causing SIDS (Sudden Infant Death Syndrome).

The study found that in a low-oxygen situation--such as could happen if a pillow or bedding impedes air flow--nicotine interferes with the normal production of stress hormones like adrenalin, which help keep the body keep breathing. According to researchers, this is the first evidence of a mechanism to account for epidemiological studies which show a relationship between smoking and SIDS.

"Nicotine changes the physiological responses to impaired breathing," Theodore Slotkin, the leader of the study told AP. "Nicotine makes you intolerant of that brief period of hypoxia. Instead of weathering the storm, they suffer cardiac arrest."

Duke University researchers looked at SIDS occurrences among newborn lab rats. The control group quickly recovered from low-oxygen situations, while the nicotine-exposed group could not.

Slotkin said the mechanism could also account for miscarriages and the loss of a baby during birth, both low-oxygen situations.

The study was published in the July issue of "Brain Research Bulletin." AP notes the study was funded by the Smokeless Tobacco Research Council, an independent research organization funded by the Smokeless Tobacco Council, which represents smokeless tobacco manufacturers

Source: Study Links Nicotine, SIDS (AP, July 12, 1995)

Why People Die

June 15, 1995. At the turn of the century, American life expectancy was 45; today it is 75, but the reasons for the 30 year extension lie less in improvements in treating disease (5 years) than in preventive measures like "better nutrition, housing, sanitation and occupational safety," according to a report by the Department of Health and Human Services. Yet the new House budget threatens to cut many of these measures, which will increase less effective and more expensive methods of disease control in years to come.

The DHHS report, "For a Healthy Nation," found that immunization, better water supplies, better hygiene, healthier diets, safer workplaces--preventive measures, rather than treatment--are responsible for "the remaining 25 years of added life."

Even cardiovascular disease has declined, largely due to "exercise, diet changes and smoking control," according to the report.

The report cited three methods of improving health:

--Clinical, i.e., direct treatment of disease --Behavioral, i.e., changing behavior, such as drinking or smoking --Environmental, i.e., cleaning up air and water pollution.

"Clinical treatment is important, but it is only one of the ways in which we improve health," said one of the report's coordinators.

Many preventive programs are slated to be cut in the House budget, which may be penny-wise and pound-foolish as "95 percent of the trillion dollars a year we spend on health goes for medical treatment, yet we know it only affects a tenth of the preventable mortality in this century," according to Michael McGinnis, deputy assistant secretary of health and human services for health

"The coroners tell us that people died of heart disease, cancer and stroke," he said. "And if we continue to shape public policy based on what the coroners tell us people died of, then we're ignoring a whole generation of biomedical research that tells us what actually causes these conditions: tobacco, alcohol, dirty air and water, benzene, sulfates and health conditions that are preventable with immunizations."

Source: "What Coroner Reports Are Really Telling Us," Spencer Rich, Washington Post, June 15, 1995

Quit Smoking By Clock Watching

New York, NY. June 15, 1995 People who smoke only at precisely-timed intervals are more successful in quitting than those who quit gradually or cold turkey, according to a researcher.

Smokers in the study only smoked at certain times of the day. If they missed their time by 5 minutes, they had to wait for the next scheduled appointment with their cigarette.

In the test of 128 smokers taking part in a 9-week smoking cessation program, the strategy seemed to work best for those who gradually decreased their consumption, but it also worked for those who merely put their smoking onto a schedule, and quit soon after. The first group showed a remarkable 44% success rate after one year, while the second group showed an impressive 32% success rate. Among those not adhering to a schedule, those quitting cold turkey had a 22% success rate, and those gradually tapering down had an 18% success rate.

Researchers thought the schedule's benefits may lie in breaking normal smoking cues, such as smoking after a meal, etc.

Researcher Paul Cinciripini of the University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston published his team's study in the June issue of the Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology. The study was reported by Malcolm Ritter of the AP.

Radon Takes Stage

Washington, DC. June 6, 1995 30% of nonsmokers' lung cancer--and 10% of all lung cancer--may be caused by radon exposure, a new study has concluded.

Radon is a naturally-occurring, radioactive gas that seeps into homes from rocks and the earth. It is invisible and odorless. Its effects are intensified by poor ventilation.

According to researchers at the National Cancer Institute radon may cause 4,700 lung cancer deaths a year among nonsmokers, and 9,700 lung cancer deaths among smokers. About 149,000 die of lung cancer each year in the US.

In contrast with asbestos, where lung cancer risks are greatly magnified for smokers, the researchers said radon increased lung cancer risk more for nonsmokers than for smokers.

The researchers did not study the effects of radon in the home, but extrapolated their conclusions from an analysis of 11 studies of radon's effects on miners.

The authors urged caution in appraising their results, as miners are also exposed to other potentially hazardous materials, such as diesel exhaust, not normally faced by homeowners.

The study was published in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Time magazine apparently felt duty-bound to note that the study was "not funded by the Tobacco Institute."

LUNG CANCER & WOKS

Washington, DC. June 6, 1995. High rates of lung cancer among Chinese women may be due to "chemicals billowing from superhot rapeseed cooking oil in woks," according to researchers from the National Cancer Institute.

The researchers analyzed cooking oils at high temperatures and found that "Chinese rapeseed oil gave off 22 times more 1,3- butadiene, a potent cause of genetic disruption, than peanut oil did."

UPI said that other potentially hazardous chemicals found in the smoke included, "benzene, also found in cigarette smoke and known to cause leukemia," and "acrolein, formaldehyde and other aldehydes."

Chinese women tend to superheat their woks, and cook in clouds of smoke from the burning oil. The researchers recommended keeping wok temperatures below the smoking point.

Curiously, the American version of rapeseed oil--canola oil--only gave off half the 1,3-butadiene.

Smoking Kents & Asbestos

June 10, 1995. If you smoked the old Kent cigarettes with the crocidolite (a form of asbestos) filter, you could still be at increased risk of mesothelioma, a virulent form of asbestos-related lung cancer, according to a new study of the old cigs.

Using previously unopened packs of Kents, William E. Longo of Materials Analytical Services in Norcross, Ga, found that each puff yielded "more than 131 million asbestos structures."

Almost 12 billion of the asbestos-laden Kents were sold through May 1956.

Source: Science News, June 10, 1995

SMOKING & HEALING

June 12, 1995. AP rounded up 3 of the recent studies on smoking and healing:

--The Baylor College of Medicine in Houston found surgical healing is adversely affected by smoking almost immediately. "Each time nicotine entered the nervous system, blood flow was restricted at the site of the surgery,' said Dr. David Netscher, a plastic surgeon. Researchers used nicotine patches to affect blood flow.

Netscher said surgery fails 2 to 3 times more with smokers than non-smokers. `We are telling surgeons to advise their patients who smoke to cease the activity as close to the surgery date and as long after surgery as possible," he said.

--A study of people with broken legs by the University of Texas Southwestern Medical School in Dallas found smokers heal almost twice as slowly. Patient-tracking in this study found the tibias of smokers take an average 276 days to heal, as opposed to 146 days for those of nonsmokers. --The Carolinas Medical Center in Charlotte, NC, found smokers were more likely to report low-back pain at work. Dr. Edward Hanley Jr. said those who smoked more than a pack a day reported more feelings of disability associated with back pain and leg cramps. The study of 550 people found no other significant relationships connected with life-styles, habits, age or sex.

FEDERAL

FDA: Nicotine's a Drug

Washington. July 13, 1995. The Food and Drug Administration has concluded that nicotine is an addicting drug, and therefore must be regulated, according to news reports. The reports stem from an FDA report sent to the White House a few weeks ago proposing means by which to limit youth access to tobacco.

The determination will take its place in history alongside Luther Terry's 1994 Surgeon General's report, and could have even further-reaching consequences.

The scalding hot potato--tobacco regulation is bitterly opposed by not only the industry and tobacco state legislators, but by a number of anti-regulation Republicans--was thrown into President Clinton's hands.

The FDA is not about to undertake full regulation of tobacco, but the proposal sent to the white house indicates that it is taking its first tentative steps in a less mine-filled area--preventing the addiction of the next generation.

The proposal has made the rounds of the White House, but has not yet been read by Clinton. It is made up of two parts. One part tracks the FDA's reasoning for assuming authority for tobacco regulation under the Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act. Analysts have assumed that such a determination on a product as dangerous as tobacco would leave the FDA no choice but to take direct control of cigarettes as "nicotine delivery devices." But the FDA, apparently mindful of the political sensitivity of such a move, has left this issue moot.

The second part of the proposal focuses on methods by which the government could prevent tobacco access by minors.

The tentative recommendations::

--Ban the use of cartoon characters in tobacco advertising. --Ban tobacco advertising in venues that have a substantial under-18 readership. --Severely curb vending machine sales of tobacco products. --Institute a national licensing program for tobacco retailers. --Implement stricter enforcement and Increased penalties for tobacco sales to minors. --Change the wording and size of cigarette warnings on ads and packages.

Asked by reporters about the issue, President Clinton said he is willing to do more to prevent tobacco use by young people, but had not seen the proposals.

Clinton told reporters, "My concern is apparently what the FDA's concern is, and that is the impact of cigarette smoking, particularly on our young people, and the fact that cigarette smoking seems to be going up among our young people, and certainly among certain groups of them."

"And I think we ought to do more about that than is being done, and I'm willing to do that, but I want to see exactly what their recommendation is."

Tobacco state legislators and others in Congress lashed out at the idea of FDA regulation..

Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich (R-GA) called the proposals an example of "big government regulation." Citing the inability of the FDA to control heroin, crack or cocaine, he said, "I think the FDA has lost its mind." Gingrich has previously called the FDA "the leading job killer in America, and its chief David Kessler "a thug and bully."

Philip Morris Cos. said the FDA has no authority to regulate tobacco, and it will vigorously oppose attempts to subject the industry to FDA regulation. It said such regulation would go "far beyond youth smoking and strike at the heart of the right of adults to make decisions for themselves."

Philip Morris only two weeks ago announced its own anti-youth smoking program, "Action Against Access." It said it would support tobacco licensing and state legislation to prevent youth smoking. Past anti-youth smoking regulations promoted by the tobacco industry have often been accused of effectively weakening restrictions or enforceability.

The FDA said in a statement Thursday:

`Smoking begins as a pediatric disease. Each day 3,000 children become regular smokers and almost 1,000 of them will eventually die from diseases related to smoking.

"The focus of our attention is to find ways to discourage children from starting in the first place. The administration is discussing what options to pursue and as normally happens, any significant proposed regulation involves discussions with department and White House officials."

Currently, warning labels and the television advertising ban are regulated by the Federal Trade Commission.

SENATE: Regulatory Debate Begins

Washington. July 10, 1995. The Senate this week begins debate of Majority Leader Bob Dole (R-KS)'s regulatory reform bill, S343.

The Senate proposal would:

--allow affected industries to challenge regulations via petitions or in the courts, even before they are written. --Require detailed risk analyses of each regulation. --Require cost/benefit analyses comparing the cost of a regulation with its health, environmental or safety benefits.

Critics charge the cost of the new requirements would effectively bring a halt to most regulatory activity by making government procedures far too costly and time-consuming--a situation exacerbated by recent moves to "starve" government agencies of funds. Proponents argue there are safeguards within the bill to deal with immediate health, environment or safety threats.

The battle will be waged by those who want to halt what they feel is "overregulation" by the government, and those who feel passage of the bill effectively would give free rein for businesses to put public health and welfare at risk.

The bill applies to regulations that would cost over $50 million. While Democrats are arguing for a $100 million threshold, the Senate has passed an amendment to the bill by Sam Nunn (D-GA), which would require cost/benefit analyses on regulations having a "significant impact" on small businesses, even if that impact is below $50 million.

With regards to tobacco, it is likely that many present investigations and potential regulations affecting the industry--such as OSHA's consideration of a ban on workplace smoking, the FDA's investigation of nicotine as an addictive drug, and the Synar youth-access rule--would become obviated should either the House or Senate versions of the bill become law. In addition, Mom-and-Pop tobacco stores would be covered under the Nunn amendment.

Republicans & Tobacco

New York, NY. June 21, 1995. National Republican Congressional Committee dinner titled "A Salute to Newt Gingrich" was held Wednesday on the USS Intrepid in New York City:

Among those listed as co-chairmen of the event:

Geoffrey Bible, chairman of Philip Morris

Charles Harper, chairman of RJR Nabisco

N.G. Brooks, chairman of Brown and Williamson

Rupert Murdoch, Philip Morris director and owner of TV Guide, Fox TV, The New York Post and HarperCollins (publisher of Newt Gingrich's new book, "To Renew America.")

The dinner was held to raise money for 1996 Republican candidates. Each of the co-chairman was responsible for giving or raising at least $100,000. The event raised $1.7 Million

About 80 Republican house members were flown into the city for the event on corporate jets provided by, among others, UST, the holding company of US Tobacco.

Source: AP

Congressman: End Tobacco Subsidies

Washington, DC. June 23, 1995 Claiming the federal government spends $42 million a year subsidizing the "production, processing and marketing" of tobacco or tobacco products, Rep. Dick Durbin (D-IL) said, "If the Republicans are prepared to cut Medicaid and education, they should be prepared to cut the subsidies for rich tobacco growers."

Durbin said he will introduce an amendment this week prohibiting tobacco subsidies.

According to AP, Walker Merryman of the tobacco institute said tobacco gets no "special treatment." He said whatever affects tobacco programs could also affect other farm programs, including those covering corn and soybean crops in Illinois.

INTERNATIONAL

GIBRALTAR: Tobacco Riots

GIbraltar. July 8, 1995. The Spanish Government ignited a riot when it seized 51 small, inflatable boats that it said were used to smuggle cigarettes and drugs from Morocco into Gibraltar, and from there to Spain.

50 to 200 youths broke windows and set fires before Spanish police restored calm.

Tensions between Spain and England over Gibraltar's role in smuggling has been increasing over the past year, and the regulations were meant to ease the pressure. Under the new rules, boat owners must prove the fast boats are used for legal purposes.

BUSINESS

PM #13 in the World

July 1, 1994. The July 10 Business Week report on the top 1000 companies world-wide lists Philip Morris as the 13th most valuable company in the world, with a market value of over $61 billion. No other US tobacco company made the top 100.

Tobacco Companies in the top 100:

RANK COMPANY COUNTRY MARKET VALUE

1995 1994 Billions of U.S. dollars

13 18 PHILIP MORRIS U.S. 61.57

70 88 B.A.T. INDUSTRIES Britain 24.06

94 84 HANSON Britain 19.61

98 NR JAPAN TOBACCO Japan 18.81

Nabisco Executive Shake-up

June 30, 1995. Winston-Salem, NC. RJR Nabisco Holdings announced a major shake-up in its executive offices today, creating a new "office of the chairman," relieving former head James H. Johnston of his domestic tobacco duties, and giving oversight of the US business to John H. Greeniaus, its food products CEO.

Johnston and Greeniaus were both named vice chairmen of the parent company, and were made members of the "office of the Chairman," a newly-created office which will "oversee the strategic direction of the company."

Greeniaus, who will not leave his position as Chairman and CEO of the Nabisco Foods Group, will also oversee the domestic tobacco business. Andrew Schindler, 50, will succeed Johnston as CEO of RJ Reynolds Tobacco Co., RJR's domestic tobacco unit.

Johnston, as chairman of R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Worldwide, will guide the company's international strategies.

The changes were very much about RJR's troubled tobacco business, which has continued to lose market share to rival Philip Morris.

The company said the changes would accelerate the company's international tobacco operations, while adding marketing expertise to its domestic business, and seemed meant to convey to Wall St. that the company is moving to stop the hemorrhaging.

Analysts were nonplussed by the shakeup. The company had seemed on the road to splitting its food and tobacco units. This move seems to unite them under Greeniaus. In addition, though he is seen as a very successful marketer of consumer products, Greeniaus has no experience in the tobacco end of the business.

The move can be seen as a trial--Greeniaus' new position will test his ability in the tobacco sector. If he is successful, he would be the obvious choice to smoothly succeed Charles M. Harper, 67, the parent company's chairman and CEO.

Johnston was one of the more visible members of the Tobacco 7 who testified before Congress in April, 1994.

Brown & Williamson Papers Available on Internet

June 30, 1995. San Francisco, CA. The State Supreme court has let stand a lower court's decision allowing the University of California at San Francisco to post on the Internet all 4,000 pages of the notorious Brown & Williamson "secret" papers. Observers have said the papers show that tobacco companies knew of the dangers of smoking 30 years ago.

UCSF has already started posting scans of the photocopies of the original pages. While the pages are graphics, they are organized by subject in a searchable index, and accompanied by abstracts. The entire project is due to be completed by the fall.

http://www.library.ucsf.edu/tobacco/bw.html

From the UCSF webpage:

All of the Brown & Williamson documents are accessible to the public in paper form at the Department of Archives & Special Collections, UCSF Library & Center for Knowledge Management.

In the future, the Brown & Williamson documents will be available to the public as a CD-ROM. Cost of the CD-ROM will $250.00 + $3.00 (shipping and handling) and $21.65 (sales tax applied if ordered within California). To place an order for the CD-ROM, send check or money order payable to UC Regents to the following address:

Tobacco Control Archives

Archives & Special Collections

UCSF Library & Center for Knowledge Management

530 Parnassus Ave

San Francisco, CA 94143-0840

AMA Goes for Tobacco's Jugular

July 12, 1995. The American Medical Association blasted the tobacco industry today, claiming that a year-long study of now-publicly available papers showed "massive, detailed and damning evidence of the tactics" by which "for more than 30 years the tobacco industry concealed evidence that nicotine is addictive and tobacco smoke causes cancer."

"The evidence is unequivocal -- the US public has been duped by the tobacco industry. No right-thinking individual can ignore the evidence. We should all be outraged, and we should force the removal of this scourge from our nation and by so doing set an example for the world," the AMA said in an editorial in an issue of its journal which is essentially one long all-out attack on the industry.

The editorial will appear in the July 19 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association, and is signed by executives of the AMA and all the members of the AMA's Board of Trustees. The signers vow that "the AMA will not relent in its opposition to tobacco use."

What has suddenly become an unprecedented war between the premier organization of the nation's doctors and the US's most profitable industry reached fever-pitch today with the pre-release of reports from JAMA issue, which reports on investigations of 8,000 pages of documents from tobacco company Brown & Williamson.

The AMA released the report a week early. "I think they will help policymakers, they will help the courts, they will help regular people understand the nature of the game the cigarette companies have been playing and make it much harder for them to get away with it in the future," said Stanton Glantz, lead researcher of one of the reports.

WHAT THE PAPERS ARE

The documents which are the focus of the JAMA issue are primarily internal memos from B&W and its parent company, London-based BAT Industries, and span the period from 1962 to 1984.

Half were provided to Congress by B&W, and half were delivered anonymously to University of California at San Francisco researcher Stanton Glantz. These are apparently the same papers photocopied in 1989 by paralegal Merrell Williams, who was working for B&W's law firm at the time. Williams is being sued by Brown & Williamson.

JAMA'S CONCLUSIONS

The articles often compare the internal memos with public statements, and general scientific knowledge of various issues at the time. The issues include the relationship between smoking and health, second-hand smoke, low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes, and industry-sponsored research.

The AMA claims the papers show that:

--B&W "knew but withheld findings on health risks of second hand smoke." --"Tobacco industry lawyers have been involved in research projects, including involvement of a public relations campaign to promote tobacco as safe" --"Private documents are at odds with public statements."

Besides the overview are four articles:

--"Nicotine and Addiction" concludes:

"The documents show that the role of nicotine in tobacco products is that of a pharmacological agent: B&W and BAT value nicotine not for what it does to taste and olfaction but for what it does to the brain. . . . The public relations posture of B&W differs markedly from the internal working views expressed by B&W and BAT during the last 30 years. While the public posture is that nicotine is not addicting, company internal writings 30 years ago assumed addiction. . . . Today, B&W publicly accepts one, and only one conclusion from the 1964 surgeon general's report: that nicotine is habituating, not an addicting drug."

--"Lawyer Control of Internal Scientific Research to Protect Against Product Liability Lawsuits" examines the steps B&W took to avoid discovery of documents that might be harmful in a lawsuit.

"These steps included efforts to control the language of scientific discourse on issues related to smoking and health, to bring all potentially damaging internal scientific documents under attorney work product and attorney-client privilege to avoid discovery, to remove `deadwood' documents, and to insulate B&W from knowledge of potentially damaging scientific information from other BAT companies," the article says.

--"Lawyer Control of the Tobacco Industry's External Research Program" examines the use of scientific projects to generate good publicity and to deflect attention away from the health dangers of tobacco, even though the industry had resolved in 1954 to examine "the smoking and health controversy."

"The documents show that scientific merit played little role in the selection of special projects or consultancies. Instead, tobacco industry lawyers played an important role in selecting grantees on the basis of their potential legal or political usefulness to the tobacco industry," the article states.

--"Environmental Tobacco Smoke" finds that the tobacco industry "has privately conducted internal research, at least some of which has supported the conclusion that passive smoking is dangerous to health, while it has publicly denied that the hazards have been proven."

JAMA'S RECOMMENDATIONS

The AMA said it would work to:

--Educate the public, physicians and politicians about the consequences of tobacco use, and "the predatory nature" of the industry. --Convince medical schools and research institutions to stop accepting tobacco research money. AMA states that the B&W documents show industry-funded research is used to controvert evidence of tobacco's harm, to buy respectability, and to silence researchers and their establishments. --Convince politicians not to accept tobacco monies, and to publicly identify those who do. --Encourage the Occupational Safety and Health Administration to move forward on its proposal to ensure a smoke-free workplace.

In addition, it said:

--The Justice Department should end all tobacco advertising and sports sponsorship. --The FDA should assume regulation of tobacco as a drug. --State and Federal taxes should be increased to pay for the medical consequences of tobacco use, and to help prevent use by young people. --Local communities should control public smoking. --State legislatures should control smoke-free areas, and the public should repeal pre-emptive state laws. --The public should support legal action against the industry to recover the costs to government agencies of tobacco-related diseases.

BROWN & WILLIAMSON REACTS

B&W said that the report is a mere "cherry picking exercise," and "a rehashing of allegations previously reported at length by the news media and discussed in testimony before Congress."

B&W claims "none of the documents establish that nicotine is addictive," and that "scientists have yet to agree on a definition or precise set of circumstances that distinguishes a state of `addiction' from `habit' or `enjoyment.'"

The company said, "the AMA's approach . . . advances only one agency -- that of the anti-tobacco establishment."

In response to the charge of directing research away from projects that might find tobacco harmful, B&W said, "even the AMA admits to its readers that `lawyers by nature are asked to evaluate proposed courses of action in terms of their legal risks.'"

LAWSUITS

ABC's Source to Remain Secret

Richmond, VA July 11, 1995 "Deep Cough" can breathe easier today: a judge has withdrawn his order that ABC identify the ex-RJ Reynolds manager who was its confidential source for the Day One news program.

Richmond Circuit Court Judge Theodore J. Markow ruled in the $10 billion libel suit that Philip Morris must provide more evidence that the information provided by "Deep Cough" could not have been gotten elsewhere, and that PM had a "compelling" need for DC's identity.

Meanwhile, ABC has denied reports that it is ready to settle the lawsuit with a public apology to Philip Morris. An ABC spokesperson said the company is involved in "very preliminary" discussions.

Castano Case Discovery to Proceed

New Orleans, LA. June 24, 1995. Judge Okla Jones II is allowing the plaintiffs in the Castano case to proceed with their discovery process, even though a Court of Appeals ruling on the case's class action status is months away.

Jones ruled that the discovery process may proceed, but only if it is "narrowly tailored" to information relating specifically to the original 3 plaintiffs, since that part of the case is not necessarily affected by the class action determination.

"The question is whether the individual plaintiffs should be delayed from proceeding while the class certification is being appealed. The answer is `No'," Jones wrote.

The decision is a limited victory for both sides--the plaintiffs' expensive and fragile coalition of high-powered lawyers can maintain their focus and momentum, and the defendants will avoid the breadth of discovery that would attend a class-action suit.

SOCIETY

REPORT: Why Women Smoke

May 18, 1995. A report resulting from 30 roundtable discussions among women about smoking has been released by the Women and Tobacco Task Force of the Commission for a Healthy New York.

"Women Talk to Women About Smoking," found that:

--Women underestimate the health risks of smoking. --Women who try to quit smoking have difficulty because of their fear of gaining weight. --Personal appearance issues play major roles in a woman's decision to smoke or not to smoke. --Higher tobacco taxes would reduce tobacco use in all age groups.

The report also found a variety of reasons why girls under 18 smoke. Among them:

--to handle peer pressure --to look "cool" or be with the "in crowd;" --to feel older --to cope with stress --to control weight --out of curiosity or boredom

Based on these findings, the Task Force said successful anti-smoking programs for young girls should:

--Capitalize on girls' need to be popular --Appeal to their concerns about their looks --Promote non-smoking role models --Expose the lie behind tobacco advertising that promises beauty or popularity.

The Task Force also recommended:

--Statewide tobacco use prevention and cessation efforts --Stronger laws to reduce youth access to tobacco --Increased cigarette excise taxes, with a portion dedicated to tobacco control --Restrictions on tobacco advertising and promotion --A more active role in tobacco control for health care providers.

ARTS AND SOCIETY

Smokefree Pocahontas Premier

New York, NY. June 3, 1995. The premier of Walt Disney's "Pocahontas" in New York City's Central Park will be smokefree, as per New York City's recently-passed Clean Indoor Air Act which prohibits smoking at ticketed outdoor events, reports the New York Post.

In reserved seating situations, you can't change your seat to escape the smoke, said Joe Cherner of Smokefree Educational Services.

The irony of a smoke-free "Pocahontas" premiere is that it was in the Virginia tobacco fields surrounding Jamestown that Pocahontas was wooed and won by seminal tobacco farmer John Rolfe. And it was her new husband's importation of Spanish tobacco leaf, along with his development of new methods of growing and curing it--quite possibly guided by her own expertise in local agriculture--which led to what has been called the single most important event of the 17th century--the sale of Virginia tobacco in London in 1614..

The successful export of Virginia tobacco not only saved the desperate Jamestown settlement, but set the course and character--in business and trade, in shipping, in agriculture and in land-hunger-- for Virginia and the entire Chesapeake region for the next 250 years.

Tobacco as grown in those days quickly wore out the soil, and required a great deal of labor. The American tobacco farmers' needs piqued the hunger for more land, and more labor. So the first Africans were brought to Jamestown in 1619, and so the tribes of the Powhattan confederacy, after fitfully bloody resistance to English encroachments, were completely subjugated within 40 years of the Jamestown landing. The first Indian Reservation in America was created in Virginia in 1651--for Pocahontas' tribespeople.

The USA was largely founded on tobacco. And if George Washington is the Father of His Country, then Pocahontas' husband John Rolfe may well be considered its Grandfather.

THE FUNNY PAGES

Jay Leno, the Tonight Show, July 13, 1995

The FDA has concluded that nicotine in cigarettes is addictive--duuhh!

Well, did you see this, the tobacco industry said, OK, OK, OK, it's addictive, but there's also nicotine present in vegetables. That's what one of the tobacco guys said. S'how come you never see people standing outside of an office building in the rain eating eggplant?



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  • 1996 Gene Borio, Tobacco BBS (212-982-4645). WebPage: http://www.tobacco.org).Original Tobacco BBS material may be reprinted in any non-commercial venue if accompanied by this credit

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