Tobacco Activism Guide: Parts 1&2

Breed's Tobacco Activism Guide
An annotated bibliography for tobacco control action
Parts 1 & 2

last update:30 November 2000. (For just the new stuff Larry's discovered, go to the Latest Updates. Or see Larry's tobacco history sites elsewhere.)




This is an annotated bibliography or index to tobacco control related web sites. Please understand that this site may not provide you with immediate answers, but should provide you with links to the answers, or at least links to individuals and/or organizations who should have the answers. As well as providing references to other sites perhaps this page can offer a few ideas and solutions.

Before taking any action it is vital to understand the problem. It is best to conduct social change efforts based on knowledge. The first section of this guide offers some information that I believe is too often ignored; I suggest that the range of knowledge needed to successfully pursue tobacco control is larger that many people realize. The tobacco problem begins with the tobacco plant, then quickly moves to the individuals within corporations that plan and create the final product, the machines and processes that alter the leaf and manufacture the product, the distribution systems, marketing and promotion, lobbying efforts, sales efforts, corporate administration, etc. The big picture is that tobacco control involves, in large part, the control of the tobacco industry (the full range of individuals and companies involved in all aspects of the growth, manufacture, promotion, distribution and sale of all tobacco products). This perspective leads to the idea that of much less importance are efforts directed to the victim of the manipulations of the members of the tobacco industry - the addicted user of tobacco products.

We face a harmful health problem based in a money-making big business. The staff members of the tobacco industry are guided by simple economic principles, the key is to make money for the owners. Other considerations, such as health, are not relevant to this economic model. Tobacco control and health activists are the counter balance to those applying the economic model.

I do not believe that "Cigarette smoking is Public Health Enemy Number One." I believe that the farming, manufacture and production, distribution, promotion, sale, historical events, etc. and then only finally, the use of the tobacco products is Public Health Enemy Number One.

There is no one solution to the tobacco problem. We do not face just one problem - hence there is no one solution. It is necessary to implement dozens of solutions to the dozens of deadly problems.



Before dealing with the various forms of manufactured tobacco product it is wise to examine the plant. Please note that in some sites tobacco is a "field crop" in some it is a "specialty crop" in some a "commercial crop."

The leaf and the farmer are not the problem.

The farmers have an organization The International Tobacco Growers' Association "the voice of thousands of tobacco farmers all over the world."

Tobacco: A Gift Of Food & Energy presents the idea of tobacco plant biomass for energy and as animal feed. The tobacco plant has many properties, tobacco farmers can sell their leaf for purposes other than production of cigarettes.

The USDA has some interesting farming data from the Economic Research Service such as the Tobacco Briefing Room, as well as publications on tobacco, including the Tobacco Situation and Outlook Report. Contact the USDA Economics and Statistics System for your free subscription to their tobacco report. The USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) has tobacco statistics and reports.

Visit the official site for the North Carolina, Department of Agriculture; start with the search engine and/or the Table of Contents. Read about "field crops," economic statistics, etc., from the Agricultural Statistics Services. Hunt through the material from the Research Stations Division.

Visit North Carolina State University's, Tobacco Information site for numerous documents on tobacco agriculture. Read through the 2000 Flue-Cured Tobacco Information page to see an overview, costs and returns that are achieved by many growers, and learn of chemicals recommended for insect, weed and 'topper' control. From Worker protection standards see information concerning the risk of pesticide-related illness or injury. Much can be learned from the section of 2000 Burley Tobacco Information.

The Florida Agricultural Information Retrieval System (FAIRS) has a search engine allowing you to hunt for tobacco topics of interest. Visit Tobacco Varieties for 2000.

The Mann Library Gateway offers a good jump-off spot for agriculture and business data, including numerous items on tobacco, there is a search feature. See below for several examples. Under the USDA Economics and Statistics System see a collection of material on tobacco. Undated annually is the Tobacco Yearbook - "U.S. and world data on production, supply, trade, disappearance, and price data for tobacco and tobacco products. Includes data on U.S. tobacco acreage, yield, production, stocks, and marketings by type." Also read Tobacco Statistics or about the Tobacco Industry, "Production, supply, trade, disappearance, and prices for tobacco and tobacco products. Includes acreage, yield, and production by type, and selected data on world production and trade."

See Plants For A Future, A Resource and Information Centre for Edible and other useful plants. Try their database of infomation.


It may seem odd to include advice on growing your own tobacco in a tobacco control page, but as I see it, the biggest single obstacle to change are the several giant corporations within the tobacco industry; anything that gets people away from their control is a benefit. "Learn by doing" is a classic health education chant, so grow your own to learn about tobacco. There is a community of people already hard at work on this.

Try Tobacco Chat A. N. Daly's Guide to Tobacco - "Tobacco Chat is hosted by Alan Daly, an authority on raising, harvesting and curing tobacco products. Mr. Daly processes his own tobacco for personal use and has an insight to problems that face the average gardener trying to grow and process tobacco for the first time." For more advice see the Alan Daly's Tobacco Chat Board

Try SBE's Home Tobacco Kit. And tobacco seeds from around the world. They even have flavorings in order to "generally smooth out tobacco and remove harsh tones."

Read Tobacco Seed and Tobacco Book Homepage with seed and advice.

Get a home tobacco kit as well as seeds and dust.

Maybe some help could be found here on growing and curing. The recipe for tobacco dust is here.

For $3.98 buy the book Cultivators Handbook of Native Natural Tobacco, and get a history lesson as well. The author suggests much of the tobacco related health problem is actually a pesticide related health problem - and that is something the home grower can eliminate.

See Tobacco Seeds and Grow Kit

Tionantati and the Native Tobacco People Farm grows "tobacco in a sacred way, re-establishing the bonds between himself and the earth, sky, plants, and animals. Traditional, sacred methods are utilized in preparing the earth and the seeds."


Tobacco products are not only a nicotine delivery system but also a pesticide delivery system. Below find information on the toxins used to grow a toxic. I cannot understand the technical terminology in some of the reports listed below, but I do know that this is an area in need of study by those who can handle the technical material.

I will leave it up to you to search through the Pesticide Action Network North America web site. They once had articles such as: Tobacco, Farmers and Pesticides: The Other Story; and Smoking and Pesticides.

The book "Basic Guide to Pesticides," (1992), offers a list of common or trade names of products with nicotine: Black Leaf 40, Destruxol Orchid Spray, Emo-Nik, Fumetobac, Mach-Nic, Niagara P.A. Dust, Nic-Dust, Nic-Sal, Nico-Fume, Nicocide, Ortho N-4 Dust, Ortho N-5 Dust, Tendust. I have also heard of Dead 'N Gone Dog Spray, Natural Guard and Nico-Dust.

Check out an understandable review of pesticides from EXTOXNET. The only way to handle this is to visit the EXTOXNET Global Search and Browse.

Researching effects of chemicals and pesticides upon health Chem-Tox.Com, with a few notes on tobacco. For example, smoking, infertility and miscarriages and cigarette smoking during pregnancy and learning disorders in children.

The Superfund agency or, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), offers several things. ATSDR ToxFAQs; look at the of chemicals. And Minimal Risk Levels (MRLs) for Hazardous Substances. See that HazDat has "developed toxicological profiles for more than 150 hazardous substances."

Read Pesticides and Wildlife - Tobacco. Offers such information as Table #1, "Toxicity of Pesticides Used on Tobacco to Birds, Mammals, and Fish;" seems most pesticides are highly or extremely toxic.

From Texas A&M University Pesticide Characteristics that Affect Water Quality.

"The level and extent of aflatoxin contamination is not being monitored in tobacco products... It is one of the most potent carcinogens known." Of course a solution, "ridding tobacco of aflatoxin may involve spraying ammonia on the tobacco" is in itself a problem.

Read Cigarette Pesticides & Human Health: Current Journal Research is a long, strong list of current medical literature making obvious the dangers of specific pesticides and an array of specific pesticides when used in combination.

Read and consider, Smoke and Illusion suggesting that much, if not all, of the tobacco-health problem is related to the pesticides, insecticides, nanocides, fertilizers, additives, etc. used in the growing and manipulation of the leaf. For information on Chronic Sublethal Exposure please read on. "The premise here is simple: it may not be tobacco that's killing all those smokers."

This is the home page of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The EPA's Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act is designed to track all insecticides used!

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) releases an Annual/Biennial Report On Carcinogens. Has an information and a search feature; find a chemical and see if it has been studied.

Read Pesticides & Chemical Contaminants. Numerous technical and regulatory reports from the U. S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition.

Read Insect Control in Flue-Cured Tobacco. discusses "proper timing and application of recommended insecticides."

Some information on agricultural chemicals in tobacco products.

The Society of Environmental Journalists. Here you will find annotated links to a large number of Internet environmental resources.

The "FDA welcomes reports from the public alerting it to problems with products that it regulates". Since tobacco products are now included a citizen can "report any drug that has caused an injury or illness." They are still stuck with snail mail!

Read 2000 Burley Tobacco Information for such as Topping and Sucker Management and, Protecting Water Quality and Reducing Pesticide Exposure, and, Worker Protection Standards for Agricultural Pesticides Used in Tobacco Production." Learn how deadly some of the toxins used to grow a toxic can be.

It is possible to grow a commercial tobacco crop with limited use of pesticides and fertilizers. Read about perique tobacco. The farmer even strips the hard vein in the center of each leaf by pulling it out by hand.


I present my complete list of the world's only honest and legitimate tobacco product companies. This creates a distinction between the ethical and legitimate tobacco product businesses versus the many outlaw corporations manufacturing toxic addictive products.

  • The Liggett Group, Inc. The fact that FORCES is boycotting their products makes me like them all the more.

  • I cannot find any link to the Enlightened Tobacco Company PLC, of the UK, makers of DEATH Cigarettes. Please tell me if they still exist.

The industry approved list of 599 Ingredients Added to Tobacco, or find the same list as, Additives Found in American Cigarettes. Let us not forget the L&M ingredients. Bad stuff here - and this is the stuff the industry thinks is safe to admit!

Long list of brands and the nicotine, tar, C/O content.

Explore the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms' Tobacco Pages. and Tobacco Programs as well as Tobacco Statistics pages.

The USDA's Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) offers assistance in selling products overseas. Read several Tobacco Statistics and Reports. Search the "BICO Reports" (Bulk commodities, and high-value Intermediate and Consumer-Oriented foods and beverages) concerning tobacco.

ASH-UK offers Tobacco additives: Cigarette engineering and nicotine addiction.

"The use of ammonia chemistry is important to the industry in maintaining adequate nicotine delivery to satisfy smokers." By William A. Farone, Ph.D.

Things could be worse, we could be facing a problem with "nicotine toothpicks." A Philip Morris draft report regarding a proposal for a "safer" cigarette Code-named "Table" includes as a curious bonus, "Competitive Nicotine Delivery Devices."

What is in the manufactured tobacco product? Tobacco sheets or reconstituted tobacco can hide much. Such as "the following tables display only a portion of the import trade in tobacco stems, roots, waste and trash through only one port - Norfolk, Virginia."


If you look "upstream" you find the tobacco health problems are based upon greed and excessive profit making by individuals within a business enterprise. This must be studied. I once asked, "how do the staff members of the tobacco companies sleep at night?" The answer was swift, "They can afford expensive pillows."

See the web sites of specific companies, such as: Philip Morris or British American Tobacco or Imperial Tobacco Group or DIMON Incorporated or United States Tobacco Company or R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company There are others out there.

Search for companies from company profiles, an international list.

The Smoke Ring includes the tobacco product manufacturing companies with their allies in your neighborhood; the tobacco industry is not just in a few east coast states; they are everywhere. This is an incomplete list of business associations and organizations that work with the tobacco product manufacturers.

I do not have my password, so I have no idea what is inside this page, but visit, the Tobacco Merchants Association (TMA).

The National Retail Security Survey is "an annual report comprised of nationwide empirical data on retail loss prevention, asset protection, and security activities." Cigarette theft is a big problem, unless you want kids to steal your product.

I have not read this whole document, but the Jones, Day, Reavis & Pogue Draft: Corporate Activity Project is an amazing outline of business practices within the tobacco industry and how to present them in a courtroom.

From the AFL-CIO, Executive Pay Watch tells us how much corporate executives make, and offers ideas on what you can do..

The Executive Compensation Advisory Services offers "information and advice on compensation and human resources trends, issues, and competitive practices." So how much extra do these guys make?

The Investor Responsibility Research Center's (IRRC) Tobacco Information Service "is the one place institutional investors, corporate executives, public health officials and other interested parties can go to get comprehensive, up-to-date, impartial information on the tobacco investment debate."

The sign-in is quick and free so visit The Thomas Register of American Manufacturers. Search for members of the tobacco industry. (Maybe not all companies are listed?) For example, those of you in NY and NJ may wish to make contact with the flavoring companies in your area.

Search for the annual reports to stock-holders of the tobacco companies within the archive of EDGAR documents. Retrieve publicly available filings submitted to the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) during the years 1994 to 1999.

"You can save time and telephone charges by ordering free reports from The Public Register's Annual Report Service" (PRARS).

"Looking for information on corporations for a school paper, activist campaign, article, lawsuit or socially conscious investment?" Read Corporate Watch for suggestions for research.

For information on the inside try Tobaccofloors, "a virtual mall of trading and information for the tobacco industry."

Need industry addresses? World Tobacco Directory is what you need.

The American Wholesale Marketers Association (AWMA - formerly the National Candy Wholesalers Association and the National Association of Tobacco Distributors) has a magazine of interest, Distribution Channels which leads you, or their members, to articles of interest. See what they have to say in Government & Industry Issues as well as their Political Programs, there is more.

The Triad Business News of North Carolina has a search engine to find their tobacco related business stories.

Yahoo finds some lobbying companies.

A CPA offers advice on, The Economic Case Against Tobacco Stocks. "As a result, the tobacco business has more in common with a Ponzi scheme or a game of musical chairs than with a normal investment. Eventually, but at an unpredictable time, courts or legislators will reallocate the burdens of tobacco to those who presently reap the benefits. Whoever happens to own the business at that point, loses."

Read ASH-UK for terrific information. Also a wonderful, The Chronologies to Tobacco Explained in six sections. The tobacco industry "is a predatory industry."

Read Tobacco Dollars and Jobs. "The steady stream of proposals to regulate, tax, or ban tobacco products has generated considerable interest in the economics of the tobacco industry. Many people and businesses rely on tobacco income, and its elimination could cause considerable economic dislocation." The author has no interest in considering the medical costs.

INFACT's Tobacco Industry Campaign begins with the statement,"The tobacco industry offers a compelling case study in the breakdown of democratic principles." Read "How Corporate Influence Kills." Join the effort. Law and policy is not their only solution, visit the Hall of Shame.

The World Bank's Economics of Tobacco Control page links to the report Curbing the Epidemic: Governments and the Economics of Tobacco Control.

CDC's Tobacco Information & Prevention Sourcepage: offers Research, Data, Reports on numerous topics including tobacco production.

Visit Company Information & History from Smoking From All Sides.

The pages Big Tobacco's Seldom Told Plan For Our Children is a wonderful collection of photos and text on the ways in which tobacco products can be placed in a store, ways that are designed to make shoplifting easy. And there is some documentation that the tobacco companies reimburse a store owner for the theft. This makes sense only if you are selling an addictive drug - the industry recruits new smokers by promoting theft.

Read McSpotlight on the Tobacco Industry "... it has been said, that these merchants of death are guilty of nothing short of murder, now you can judge for yourself."


If you have not visited Secret Tobacco Document Quotes please do so. These are really cherry picked quotes.

Looking for tobacco industry documents? There are dozens of sites. Start with TBBS's tobacco documents. If they said or wrote it you will probably find it from here.

The AMA has arranged quotes from the Minnesota trial in categories.

The CDC's Tobacco Industry Documents is here; "Public Access to Industry Documents."

The Tobacco Control Archives of UCSF contain various tobacco industry documents. The tobacco control historian should take a peek at the Tobacco Control Archives Collections.


The Indiana Prevention Resource Center Drug Statistics Master Page is an amazing collection of data; we know so much!

See STOPN for a good list of "Research Links" for Tobacco Surveys & Research. From AUTS to YRBS.

The CDC has many sources of relevant information.

Read PrevLine from SAMSHA, NCADI, CSAP, CSAT, etc. Lots of resources, referrals, links and databases. See their nicotine page.

The National Center for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI) databases include a searchable site for material on smoking.

Read about The Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS) Series from NCADI. Also on communities.

A collection of Materials to buy from NCADI.

The ACS's Tobacco Use statistics are here.

Useful information for one and all Tobacco Control and Smoking Cessation Resources for Physicians and Health Care Providers such as, Guide to Smoking Cessation for physicians and office staff in assisting patients, and Synopsis for Physicians: How to Help Your Patients Stop Smoking.

For health data find Medline from several sources (I assume it is all the same information). From Medscape see MedScape's Medline search engine. From the National Library of Medicine, Free Medline may be of use. Or Sanford's Medline.

WHO's Smoking or Health, Global Status Report, Country Profiles by Region, 1997.

Read the current issue of Tobacco Control journal.


    At the last minute you need a fact sheet and need a nice image to aid your handout or presentation. You know that you have read hundreds but you cannot find them this moment. So what do you do? Stand on the shoulder of giants.

    The CDC has fact sheets. Try CDC's search engine of smoking and health topics. Use it!

    TIPS of the Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) has material for use. Review the list in Research, Data, Reports, or fact sheets here.

    The ALA fact sheet is here. The ALA of Washington has a wonderful collection of packets, fact sheets, etc. See Lung Information and Service Center for aid.

    WHO has a variety of fact sheets many on tobacco.

    Facts sheets from ARF.

    The AMA fact sheet on tobacco and kids.

    The Drug Statistics Master Page.

    Tobacco-Free Kids' has fact sheets.


      Drug policy is often focused upon alcohol or other drugs (AOD), often ignoring tobacco (ATOD). While drug policy usually deals with "illegal drugs" sometimes it deals with "conditionally legal drugs" (for example, the condition being no use or sale to minors). No matter ATOD or AOD, there is information of use and lessons to learn. For example, alcohol control activists are also facing a problem that, in part, involves changing a powerful industry. There are similarities and lessons to learn and share.

      Try Drugtext articles or books.

      DRCNet Online Library is long, give it a try. The DRCNet Online Library of Drug Policy claims to be the largest on the net. There are many places to explore here. Visit the Schaffer Library. Learn about the drug wars; ramble through the possibilities here.

      Please see the Pacific Drug Policy Institute, Inc. for an intriguing discussion on the drug crime epidemic and the theory of "market interposition".

      From the National Commission on Marihuana and Drug Abuse comes the History of Tobacco Regulations.

      Information for State Health Policy Program. This "site is intended to help interested parties locate Model Reports and Standards for health statistical information, experience electronic Query submittal, and locate related health information resources."


        Public Citizen has information on the political influence of the tobacco lobby in DC, Burning Down the Houses.

        Find the email address of your federal and state elected officials here. Then see the Activism How- To pages.

        The Library of Congress offers many features for any activist. Try "Major Legislation By Topic" and "Committee Information," to start.

        Read through Project Vote Smart. Find biographies and status of legislation and much more.

        Lots of good stuff from WebActive -- look around.

        The Government Printing Office (GPO) has links and a search feature to connect to many federal databases online. Try the Federal Register, or the Congressional Record, or others.

        The National Association of Counties (NACo) is "the national voice for America's county governments." There is a search feature, material on Legislation and more than you may wish for on "County Government, A Brief Overview."

        Find state and Local Governments on the Net.

        The on line version of the text Government by the People, is designed as a way to study American government. Chapter 20 offers an exercise on policy issues surrounding tobacco.


          Covering Tobacco, A Handbook for Journalists.

          Find a media outlet from this large list.


          Search for articles from Fairness and Accuracy in Reporting (FAIR) includes an examination of tobacco topics.

          A nice collection of media links for one and all.

          "The Care and Feeding of The Press A guide for press relations staff." "Like it or not, we need each other."

          A Series of Advanced Media Advocacy Advisories for Tobacco Control Advocates from the Advocacy Institute.


          Remember why you are here - you need to learn more about the industries and companies you are attempting to work with.

          Numerous reviews of advertising can be found from AdAge.

          The most recent FTC tobacco advertising report.

          Read Cigarette Seduction: Deconstructing its Siren Appeal to Teen Smokers. Learn about the industry and tobacco promotion. The work "is about looking at the human message behind the brands."

          The American Society of Addiction Medicine has an issue with numerous articles and editorials on tobacco. One article states, the "Journal of Marketing [discovered] that cigarette advertising not only influences adolescents' brand choices, but that when advertising intensity doubles, it has three times the effect on teens' choices as on adults."

          Visit the Advertising Law Internet Site. Learn more about advertising law, see lots of links and join in the discussion group; there is material on tobacco.

          The Gateway to the World of Advertising and Media offers links to a few outdoor, poster and billboard companies and organizations.

          People that advertise tobacco products should read the Full Text of the American Marketing Association Code of Ethics and think about what they are doing.



            It is useful to have an understanding of what people know or feel, how they have acted, or how they intend to act. Public opinion surveys are one way to get at some of this information.

            Look to the holdings from UC DATA for research stuff.

            The Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR) has data. It contains "the world's largest archive of computerized social science data."

            The Gallop Organization has conducted public opinion surveys for decades.

            The Roper Center has conducted public opinion surveys for decades.

            Search the US Census Bureau for material on tobacco-related issues. See Subjects A-Z and Access Tools.

            Some of the material at Drug Statistics Master Page could be of use.



              The internet provides many sources of information to advance social change, including that of tobacco control. Below are some of those sources that offer general material, advice and lessons learned on social change. Apply these lessons to tobacco-related actions.


                Someone once stated that Tobacco BBS is one stop shopping for tobacco control activists, just so. Review Sites of the Month, and Tobacco Control Resources, and Government Resources, as well as International resources

                This is one of those sites you wish you knew about years ago, The Virtual Activist combines activism with the net.

                Read Taking on Tobacco from Essential Action "created to alert activists to current international campaigns and activities."

                The organization Finding the Power has many things, such as advocacy material.

                Lots of links from Be an Activist.

                The ACTION Homepage - (Activists' Center for Training In Organizing and Networking). Check this out. See, Activism Training Materials & Resources, and Essential Learning for Activists: How the system works (or doesn't).

                U. S. News Online has assembled a citizen's toolbox on key legislative issues.

                See Prevline they have a little of everything.

                The 20/20 Vision Education Fund has developed a Toolkit for Activists "to increase your effectiveness as an advocate for our planet...."

                The Community Tool Box: Building Community Capacity for Change.

                Tobacco lacks nutrition, a main interest of Center for Science in the Public Interest. They do have several campaigns of interest and sell an action handbook. Lots of action alerts, letters, fact sheets, etc.

                Read about Sound Partners for Community Health "a competitive national grant program for public radio stations."

                Study the Reality Check Campaign Kit for ideas on what to do with your own campaign.

                The Ontario Prevention Clearinghouse offers a nice collection of sites on Health Promotion, Community Development and social change. Download publications on health promotion, community development, organizational change, etc.

                The Fight the Right Action Kit offers advocacy advice.

                The Right To Know Network, RTK Net, "provides access to environmental, housing, and campaign finance databases."

                A useful site is Join Together Online. Includes community action, public policy, relevant issues, news, funding and discussions.

                The HandsNet is a "national, nonprofit organization that promotes information sharing, cross-sector collaboration and advocacy among individuals and organizations working on a broad range of public interest issues."

                The Environmental Background Information Center "is a non-profit organization that provides corporate research and strategic assistance to grassroots community activists working on environmental issues."

                See the "How To's for Activists" from the National Wildlife Federation.

                  How To Manuals

                  A friend told me her office staff was preparing a how-to-do-advocacy manual. I hated to hear that; there are already too many manuals! I suggest one spend less time writing manuals and spend the time writing letters to the press, elected officials, etc. Advocacy manuals, guides and how-to manuals can be found in many locations, including the net; why write another one? If you must write one please stand on the shoulders of those that have gone before - review, copy (giving proper credit of course), and improve from what exists. Below is a short list of addresses (in no order).

                  Find a number of How to's from PrevLine.

                  The Electronic Activist offers a series of guides and how to's for one and all.

                  Try Tips on How to Use the Media Effectively.

                  From BUGAUP, the Do-It-Yourself Graffiti Guide "It's a sad fact, but we've learnt through long experience that money is the only language billboard advertising companies understand. Nothing will get those ads down faster that if their profits are reduced by. escalating maintenance costs."

                  The National Wildlife Federation's The How To's Page For Activists is full of useful advice.

                  A series of materials from the 20/20 Vision Education Fund.

                  The ACTION Center offers, Activism Training Materials & Resources. Look around.

                  You may find something of use at the Community Tool Box.


                    The mass media is a powerful source for social maintenance or social change. In its daily task of providing news and entertainment it acts as a maintenance or change agent; but often one that is undirected and unfocused. It also acts as a repository and resource of knowledge and advice. It is vital to see it as that; first as a way to communicate and distribute various educational and political messages, then second, as a knowledge resource. It should not be overlooked in any activity undertaken.

                    It behooves the activist to learn how to work with and excite journalists (this advice is the core of "media advocacy"), as well as the staff of entertainment shows. Below are sites that may provide valuable information on the work of the journalist. Run through these sites, they may offer some relevant ideas.

                    "The Center for Media & Democracy is a nonprofit, public interest organization funded by individuals and nonprofit foundations and dedicated to investigative reporting on the public relations industry."

                    See CNN's tobacco page links you to their search engine of stories, lots of them.

                    I have not given this a real good test, but see, NewsIndex: "The most comprehensive, up to the minute News Search Engine on the planet."

                    Read iwantmedia your one stop for media news and info.

                    Each of the links here is to a useful site with good advice for Info on Media Access, with advice.

                    Improving Public Understanding: Guidelines For Communicating Emerging Science on Nutrition, Food Safety, and Health. "For Journalists, Scientists, and All Other Communicators. Based on an advisory group convened by Harvard School of Public Health and International Food Information Council Foundation."

                    Read Screen It reviews movies, including tobacco use.

                    "This section includes information about Advertising Standards Canada and other industry associations, as well as the codes and standards." Or maybe try the material on Film and Video. Understand and work with these groups.

                    The Media Access Project may be of use to someone.

                    A few ideas on using media literacy and such.

                    The MediaFinder, 'Your source for print media and catalogs" Lots here! Search several directories for tobacco related newsletters and magazines. Also, see media lists.

                    Gebbie's list makes the claim that you can find all media in USA. For radio, for television, and for daily newspapers.

                    The Television News Archive of Vanderbilt University has a collection of TV news shows starting in 1968.

                    Run here for, Pursuing the Press. Offers important advice on working with the media.

                    The Community Media Workshop "helps Chicago-area community and civic groups get news and feature stories about their work in the news media." Find the long list of Chicago Media E-Mail Addresses. This seems to be of limited geographic interest, but the lessons here are for everyone.

                    Welcome to the Civic Journalism section of Civic Practices Network (CPN). Offers information on the civic and public journalism movement. Find case studies from various cities of "public journalism projects".


                      An evaluation can be as easy or as hard as you wish. Some projects spend one-third of the total budget on evaluation; those projects are run by professional evaluators and are in real trouble if I can be of aid.

                      The best way to start an evaluation is sit down with a few people and consider, first what are you doing? second, what changes do you hope to create? and finally, how can you document change? in: (a) your organization, (b) individuals or organizations you deal directly with and (c) within the full community?

                      Next, collect and study the works of others who have done similar work. Almost any project you are doing has been done before or has roots in similar tasks, and these previous projects have been evaluated. It may be hard to find the exact thing you need, but with some effort you can find something similar. Learn from the previous work.

                      Evaluation requires that you look for things you or your project did that can be counted, as a way of indicating change over time within your organization, the population you work with and the community. Tracking what you did can be as direct and simple as keeping a careful record of your activities in your calendar. Rather than a formal pre post survey of randomly dialed phone numbers, try counting the smokers in front of your office building each morning.

                      It is a secret of evaluators that much of evaluation is actually just clerical tracking. Every time you do something find a way to categorize it and count it. The first question becomes what can you count, and the second is, how to categorize it as vital to your overall objective. If there is a meeting be sure to pass around a sign-in sheet - that is evaluation. Keep a list of who phones you and who you phone (a pain, but it is evaluation). Keep a copy of all letters you write - that can be counted as part of an evaluation. Mark a map indicating the geographical areas you have visited. How many pamphlets did you pass out? How many people did you convince to appear at a city council meeting? You can count the activity of staffing a booth at a health fair, but for the purposes of evaluation (and your task), also have a petition on hand and ask people to sign it; each of those names is very powerful to an evaluator.

                      Please be aware that you do not have to collect all the data yourself. Relevant data is collected by groups with no interest in tobacco control, but you have to be aware of this and find them, they will not come to you. Go to the local government offices and ask if they keep track of business licenses, tobacco merchants, tobacco distributors, billboard locations, taxes collected, etc. Talk to the Police and Office of Environmental Affairs about violations of local laws and restaurant codes. Talk to the Fire Department, see if they track the suspected cause of fires. Talk to the local Health Officer, do they track relevant data? Talk to local doctors and hospitals for records they routinely make. Contact the local Poison Control Center to find out how many children got sick after eating cigarettes or cigarette butts (you will be surprised by the number). Contact the local schools and find out how many students were officially noted for violating the smoking policy. Walk through several years of the Yellow Pages looking for a change in the number of listings under "addiction," "cessation," "treatment," "tobacco," etc. Phone cessation programs and find out how many people they work with each month. Newspapers receive many letters to the editor but print few, see if you can gain access to the unpublished ones. Each year there is a nationwide beach clean-up day and the second most common item collected is usually cigarette butts, track the local data over time.

                      More formal than this is an active gathering of relevant countable things. At regular intervals throughout the year have a team of people: (a) enter a bar and count smokers, (b) enter a restaurant and count smokers, (c) compare the number of total billboards with the number of tobacco billboards, (d) count cigarette butts in high school bathrooms, (e) count the number of smokers as school lets out, (f) count the number of smokers standing in front of your office building each day, (g) calculate the percent of classified ads mentioning rental of no smoking rooms, or (h) the percent of personals listings looking for a non smoker.

                      Keep a clipping file of local newspaper articles on the topic of tobacco issues. Collect copies of all local ordinances in your area that deal with tobacco issues. Maintain a mailing list of all in your area that are interested or involved in the issue, watch your list of allies grow.

                      You do not need to be trained in survey techniques to do a simple evaluation interviews. Talk to a few representatives of specific groups repeatedly and write down their comments. Every so often talk to: city council members, teachers, teens, doctors, store owners, reporters, etc. What do they have to say? Do the comments change over time?

                      There are books and manuals on evaluation. Look to NCADI.

                      For those of you needing evaluation help, maybe visit Community-Level Indicators for some hints.

                      Or for more evaluation aid try An Evaluation Primer on Health Risk Communication Programs and Outcomes for aid.

                      The CDC has a very powerful collection of state level data with the State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System "The STATE System is designed to integrate many data sources to provide comprehensive summary data and facilitate research and consistent interpretation of the data."

                      From! "you can do 'one-stop shopping' for all your social marketing needs." There are some nice links to review. Some on evaluation or health communication or behavior change.

                      Looking for a survey tool? Try: ERIC/AE Test Locator.

                      Try the links provided here under the Tobacco Research and Data Sources. Or try Drug Statistics Master Page. Lots of good material to roam through: DAWN, NDATUS, WHO, CDC, MMWR, etc. See the "Research Links" for a good list of Tobacco Surveys & Research, from AUTS to YRBS

                      Then see the collection of research data from professional collectors Public Opinion Surveys, Etc.

                      Reality Check offers evaluating Your Campaign has advice.

                      Possibly you will want to gain some background on your geographical area, so visit the US Census Bureau for a map of data by state to county. Or from city or zipcode to vast amounts of data!

                      Most work should have a mass media component. That means you want to know how the press is responding to your work. We cannot assume Gene will know of every news story in the world in his collection of news in TBBS or Tobacco E-News: collected by Gene Borio. That means that you must collect the news. Have someone cut out relevant articles, ads, letters to the editors, cartoons, photographs, etc. from all local newspapers, magazines, newsletters, school bulletins, etc. Recording all television and radio shows is tougher; there are companies you can hire. This is called media monitoring, (you will also find them in the Yellow Pages). They record each television and radio show and will give you a report of what is relevant to your topic.

                        ACTION ORGANIZATIONS NEED HELP

                        The Internet Nonprofit Center (INC) offers useful information for nonprofit organizations.

                        The Benton Foundation may have some material of interest.

                        The Foundation Center offers library services, training, grant writing aid and information.

                        You may find useful material in Non Profit Times Online.

                          Please see the next section of the Tobacco Activism Guide

                          PART 3 - TOBACCO CONTROL ACTIVISM

                          1996 Larry Breed, the Tobacco BBS (212)982-4645. WebPage: .
                          Please email Larry Breed, DrPH, Community Health Education Institute, for reprint authorization.

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